Usually located 3-4 km below sea level. Petroleum is obtained by making a wellbore. Crude oil is collected in a tanker or piped to a tank station or to an oil refinery.

Drawing Schematic Groove Drilling Ground

Crude oil contains about 500 types of hydrocarbons with the number of atoms C-1 to 50. The hydrocarbon boiling point increases with the number of C atoms inside the molecule. Therefore, petroleum processing is carried out by a multilevel distillation, in which crude oil is separated into groups (fractions) with similar boiling points.

In the refining process of crude oil, there are 5 factions products, namely: refinery gas (many containing methane , ethane , and hydrogen), light distillates (LPG, gasoline, naptha), middle distillates (kerosene, diesel oil), heavy distillates ( fuel oil), and the residuum (lubricating oils, wax, tar). Each category of fuel has a boiling point at a range of different temperatures, as shown in the figure below

At first, crude oil is heated in the flow pipe in the furnace (furnace) up to a temperature of ± 370 ° C. Crude oil that is heated is then entered into the fractionation column at the flash chamber (usually located on the bottom third of the fractionation column). To keep the temperature and pressure in the column assisted by heating with steam (steaming hot water and high pressure).

Crude oil that evaporates in this distillation process rises to the top of the column and then condenses at different temperatures. Components with a higher boiling point will remain liquid and descend downward, while the lower boiling point will evaporate and rise to the top through the hoods called bubble hoods. Upward, the temperature in the fractionation column is lower, so that whenever the higher boiling component is separated, the lower boiling component rises to the upper part again. Thus further so that the peaked component is a component which at room temperature is a gas.

The petroleum fraction generated based on its boiling point range is as follows:

       1. Gas
       Range of carbon chains: C1 to C5
       Boiling route: 0 to 50 ° C

       2. Gasoline (Gasoline)
       Range of carbon chains: C6 to C11
       Boiling route: 50 to 85 ° C

       3. Kerosene (Kerosene) 
       Range of carbon chains: C12 to C20
       Boiling route: 85 to 105 ° C

       4. Solar
       Range of carbon chains: C21 to C30
       Boiling route: 105 to 135 ° C

       5. Heavy Oil
       Ranai carbon range: C31 to C40
       Boiling route: 135 to 300 ° C

       6. Residue
       Range of carbon chains: above C40
       Boiling route: above 300 ° C

     Crude oil is measured in barrel = 42 US Gallon = 159 liters. 42 gallon (1 barrel) oil will produce more than 44 gallons of oil products. The addition of 2 gallons is similar to that of popcorn which grows larger after expansion. The composition of petroleum separation results



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